1450 reproduction of Guy de Chauliac illustration of setting a dislocated shoulder.
Guy de Chauliac (1300-1368) was one of the first doctors to re-introduce science and legitimacy to medicine. His surgical manuscripts were translated into pretty much every language in late Medieval Europe, including English (in 1425), and were the most influential clinical practice books for over a century.
He was also the physician to Popes Clement VI, Innocent VI, and Urbain V. When the Black Death came to Avignon, he was one of the few physicians who remained. He got quite sick a few weeks after the first Black Death case, but survived. De Chauliac kept very exacting records of each case he treated, and is thought to be the first European to differentiate between Pneumonic Plague and Bubonic Plague.