Posts tagged human

humanoidhistory:

Portrait of an Egyptian mummy, 1881, by Emil Brugsch-Bey.
(New York Public Library)

humanoidhistory:

Portrait of an Egyptian mummy, 1881, by Emil Brugsch-Bey.

(New York Public Library)

Heart Inside Pericardial Sac
There are two layers to the pericardium: the outer fibrous pericardium, which is the tough tissue that protects the heart and anchors it in place, and the inner serous pericardium, which further cushions the heart against trauma and lubricates the area between the muscle and tough fibrous pericardium, so that no friction is formed while the heart pumps blood.
Atlas and Text-Book of Topographic and Applied Anatomy. Oskar Schultz and George D. Stewart, 1905.

Heart Inside Pericardial Sac

There are two layers to the pericardium: the outer fibrous pericardium, which is the tough tissue that protects the heart and anchors it in place, and the inner serous pericardium, which further cushions the heart against trauma and lubricates the area between the muscle and tough fibrous pericardium, so that no friction is formed while the heart pumps blood.

Atlas and Text-Book of Topographic and Applied Anatomy. Oskar Schultz and George D. Stewart, 1905.

HOKAY NO MORE HEIGHT QUESTIONS

<3 I’ve gotten about 15 anons (and, thankfully, several non-anons) in the past 2 hours, and while I’d love to help you all, I really really cant.

Trust me, you’re cool even if you’re below average or way above average or two feet tall! Don’t worry about it, and if you want to know the reasons why, your doctor knows way more than me ^_^

I want to put my two cents in. I'm 17 as well.. almost 18, female and I'm 5'1 .. I exercise but I don't eat well is there a chance I'll grow at least a bit? — Asked by Anonymous

I mean, there’s always a chance if you’re not above the age where your epiphyseal plates fuse, you’re probably at your adult height, or close to it.

…just in case your bones have got some growth left in them, get some sun and eat some fruits and veggies, yes? Even the winter sun has lots of vitamin D in it, and you REALLY need proper vitamins and minerals to grow to your complete potential.

While there’s a good deal of genetic variation in the field, the fact that vitamins and minerals are so intrinsic to your height that it’s used as a measurement of standard-of-living.

Is 5'7 short for a 16 year old male? — Asked by Anonymous

5’ 7.3” is literally the 50th percentile of the 16th year (68.752362205 cm at 16.5 years of age), soooo…nope.

biomedicalephemera:

Man (Homo sapiens sapiens), Cow (Bos taurus), and Ram (Ovis aries)
The structure of the ruminant animals varies considerably. It’s important for the artist to recognize the vertebral layout and rib structure, even of animals that are covered in thick wool or fur. Wild bovids (such as bison) and aurochs have extended cervical vertebrae that form a “hump” over their shoulders.
A Comparative View of the Human and Animal Frame. B. Waterhouse Hawkins, 1860.

biomedicalephemera:

Man (Homo sapiens sapiens), Cow (Bos taurus), and Ram (Ovis aries)

The structure of the ruminant animals varies considerably. It’s important for the artist to recognize the vertebral layout and rib structure, even of animals that are covered in thick wool or fur. Wild bovids (such as bison) and aurochs have extended cervical vertebrae that form a “hump” over their shoulders.

A Comparative View of the Human and Animal Frame. B. Waterhouse Hawkins, 1860.

North Island Moa (Dinoris novazealandiae), high-class Māori in kakapo and kiwi feather robe, and Haast’s Eagle (Harpagornis moorei)

The Haast’s Eagle (Harpagornis moorei) was the largest known raptor to exist - while there were larger birds that existed, no larger birds of prey have been found in the fossil record so far. It was huge, large enough to easily take away a small human child, and create a significant injury threat to even the largest adult humans.

When the Polynesian people known as the Maori arrived in New Zealand, around C.E. 1250-1300, the Haast’s eagle and moa would have been dangerous and defining creatures in their lives. While the moa was not a big meat-eater, it could kick (and possibly kill) a human more easily than an ostrich can, and would not have hesitated to do so, if threatened.

However, with their already-advanced spears and javelins, and their ingenuity with hunting and shelter-building, the Maori easily overcame the threat of the moa - by 1400, the giant bird was no more.

Unfortunately, with its primary food source gone, the Haast’s eagle also went extinct, shortly after the moa. Today, birds like the kakapo, kiwi, taiko, and takahe, are all critically endangered, because of human influence and habitat destruction. New Zealand’s island environment, with its few airborne predators and unusual evolutionary pressures, has lead to extremely specialized birds, and they unfortunately adapt poorly to a modern world that has feral cats, rats, and poachers. While conservationists attempt to protect them from the pressures of non-island life, there is little telling what the future holds for them.

Images:

Extinct Birds. Lionel Walter Rothschild, 1907.

A History of the Birds of New Zealand. Walter Lawry Buller, 1873.

"Ancient DNA Tells Story of Ancient Eagle Evolution". Art: John Megahan, 2005.

"Inevitabile fatum" - The Inevitable Fate
Anato Miae, Hoc Est, Corporis. 1537, Ioannem Dryandrum [Joannem Dryandrum], 1537.

"Inevitabile fatum" - The Inevitable Fate

Anato Miae, Hoc Est, Corporis. 1537, Ioannem Dryandrum [Joannem Dryandrum], 1537.

Reginald Southey with human and monkey skeleton
Albumen photograph by Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (nom de plume Lewis Caroll, author of Alice in Wonderland), 1857.
Reginald Southey was an English physician who invented a specialized cannula (tube) for draining the excess fluid from limbs suffering from edema (dropsy). He also apparently served on England&#8217;s &#8220;Lunacy Commission&#8221; so&#8230;there&#8217;s that. Southey was lifelong friends with Charles Lutwidge Dodgson and was the one who encouraged him to take up photography.
The pensive expression on Southey&#8217;s face betrays the fact that he&#8217;s standing with his arm around a skeleton rather than a live human. The composition of the photograph and the portrayal of the abnormal as mundane strikes me as incredibly reminiscent of the worlds Dodgson created in his writings.

Reginald Southey with human and monkey skeleton

Albumen photograph by Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (nom de plume Lewis Caroll, author of Alice in Wonderland), 1857.

Reginald Southey was an English physician who invented a specialized cannula (tube) for draining the excess fluid from limbs suffering from edema (dropsy). He also apparently served on England’s “Lunacy Commission” so…there’s that. Southey was lifelong friends with Charles Lutwidge Dodgson and was the one who encouraged him to take up photography.

The pensive expression on Southey’s face betrays the fact that he’s standing with his arm around a skeleton rather than a live human. The composition of the photograph and the portrayal of the abnormal as mundane strikes me as incredibly reminiscent of the worlds Dodgson created in his writings.

You are my only refuge right now all search engines have failed me. Do you know of any articles that supposes or assumes the mouth as a sexual organ. — Asked by imperatorclass

There are a few that you can find on Google Scholar that explicitly mention the mouth as a sexual organ, but they are largely based upon the works of Freud or some earlier, more…”interesting”, points of view.

I don’t know what resources you have available to you, but if you’re on a high school or college campus, you probably have access to a lot of different journals - I just don’t know which ones you can access.

Beyond Freudian stuff, there are two broad approaches to seeing the mouth as a sexual organ; it can either be viewed as a site of physical stimulation or chemical stimulation (the body responding to a partner’s MHC profile/hormonal profile and *possibly* [not very likely] responding to the pheromone signals via the human vomeronasal organ).

If you’re looking at it as a site of physical stimulation, try looking up the works of Kinsey, and the follow-up research done in the 1990s that heavily references Kinsey. Chemical stimulation articles can be found in the Chemical Senses journal, among others, by searching for “MHC human sexuality”, “human vomeronasal organ”, and similar terms.

The mouth is also seen as a sexual organ owing to its aural stimulation abilities when producing sounds during intercourse or even in non-sexual interactions. However, this is not a widely-researched view.

We once had a chimp who could sort photographs of apes and human beings into two piles. Apes on one pile, humans on the other. The only trouble was, every time she got to her own picture, she put it on the pile with the human beings.
Dr. Geoffrey H. Bourne, Yerkes Primate Research Center. Bartlett’s Unfamiliar Quotations by Leonard Levinson, 1971. (via ingridrichter)
Skull of juvenile Bornean orangutan (top) compared to adult Homo sapiens
Like most great apes, Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) have large, sharp, canine teeth. However, these do not grow in until the juvenile orangutan loses its milk teeth, a couple years after weaning (typically between 4-6 years of age).
You can see the evolutionary differences in diet between orangutans and humans, simply by looking at the teeth and shape of the skull. The orangutan has large, broad molars, sharp incisors, and mandibular musculature that has a very broad attachment point on the skull. Bornean orangutans are generally vegetarian, feeding on leaves, berries, and even bark at times. The broad molars are necessary for grinding and breaking down roughage in their diet.
While the human skull given is not the best example, we have smaller molars, weaker mandibular muscles, and fairly dull incisors and canines. Homo sapiens evolved as strict omnivores, but with a very distinct difference from our more simian (and even most of our hominid) ancestors - we cooked our food. Though the roughage early humanity consumed was much tougher than what we eat today (unless you eat roots and nutmeats as a primary diet), cooking foods such as meats and roots broke them down before we ate them. Our skulls required less space for jaws and jaw muscles, and we required less energy to eat than ever before.
Die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur. J.C.D. Schreber, 1774.

Skull of juvenile Bornean orangutan (top) compared to adult Homo sapiens

Like most great apes, Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) have large, sharp, canine teeth. However, these do not grow in until the juvenile orangutan loses its milk teeth, a couple years after weaning (typically between 4-6 years of age).

You can see the evolutionary differences in diet between orangutans and humans, simply by looking at the teeth and shape of the skull. The orangutan has large, broad molars, sharp incisors, and mandibular musculature that has a very broad attachment point on the skull. Bornean orangutans are generally vegetarian, feeding on leaves, berries, and even bark at times. The broad molars are necessary for grinding and breaking down roughage in their diet.

While the human skull given is not the best example, we have smaller molars, weaker mandibular muscles, and fairly dull incisors and canines. Homo sapiens evolved as strict omnivores, but with a very distinct difference from our more simian (and even most of our hominid) ancestors - we cooked our food. Though the roughage early humanity consumed was much tougher than what we eat today (unless you eat roots and nutmeats as a primary diet), cooking foods such as meats and roots broke them down before we ate them. Our skulls required less space for jaws and jaw muscles, and we required less energy to eat than ever before.

Die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur. J.C.D. Schreber, 1774.

jaconni:

PRAGUE 2011

[KUTNA HORA — Sedlec Ossuary]

[Bohemia, CZ]

moshita:

skull fracture with hematoma, ca. 1700

moshita:

skull fracture with hematoma, ca. 1700

anatomicallyincorrect:

Views of a Foetus in the Womb (c. 1510 - 1512) is a drawing by Leonardo da Vinci.

anatomicallyincorrect:

Views of a Foetus in the Womb (c. 1510 - 1512) is a drawing by Leonardo da Vinci.