The aspirated h in “hoatzin” is a throwback to the Spanish language of the 17th century. Most Romance languages still maintain a number of words that have a silent or aspirated H at the beginning or end of the word, even though British English seems to have made a point over the past 200 years to rid itself of that device. American English (and American Spanish, which constitutes more than just North American Spanish, mind you) still has many words that use the aspirated h - most notable being “herbs”.
Long story short, the “H” is silent. The “W” sound comes from the “o”, which was originally spelled with an “ou” in English.
“-itis” means inflammation. It’s original meaning was “of the,” because it was used at the end of an anatomical part followed by the word “nosos,” meaning illness. So, “bursitis nosos” meant illness of the bursa. Current usage simply means inflammation of the named part, so “bursitis” is inflammation of the bursa.
Yes yes yes. I realize that -itis means inflammation. Maybe I should have looked at my own posts, first. The person who corrected my “fever” (which would have been “pyro-”, by the way) to “swelling” wasn’t any more wrong than me, but gave a good illustration of a common misconception about what “inflammation” is.
Acute inflammation isn’t just swelling. It’s is characterized by four signs: rubor (redness), dolor (pain), calor (“fever” - hotness at the site), and tumor (swelling). I guess if you combined my original incorrect definition with the first correction, you’re halfway there?
Thanks to Dan Urbach for the interesting etymological lesson on “-itis” and everyone else who submitted posts and questions giving me the *actual* correct definition, and reminding me that sometimes I should go back and look at my definitions before hitting “post”.
Here’s Jesus trying to destroy Darwin (and failing, I might add), because I can. You have earned it.
Ok, so this was totally a typo on my part, the actual term is “skiagraph”. I’m not sure of the exact etymology, but it’s used alongside “roentenogram” and “radiograph”, but before people commonly used “x-ray” as a term.
The Greek root word “skia” means “to shine”. It’s more specifically defined as “a photographic image produced on a radiosensitive surface by radiation other than visible light (especially by X-rays or gamma rays)” [x]
Yes, they did! Cancer/growing tumors have been recorded as far back as ancient Egypt, 3000 years ago. Hippocrates recorded hard malignant tumors visible from the surface (as the Greeks did not believe in opening the body), called them carcinos because “the veins stretched on all sides as the animal the crab has its feet, whence it derives its name”
Celcus (25 BCE - 40 CE) translated carcinos into the Latin equivalent - cancer.
Afrikaans is a language derived from Cape Dutch, originally spoken by the Dutch farmers (Boers) living in South Africa. As the farmers established themselves in the Transvaal and Orange Free State, they encountered wildlife not known in the British-controlled Cape Colony, and gave several species common names that are still used today.
While scientific nomenclature for these species is still derived from Greek and Latin, the names that most of us know them by are derived from (or directly pulled from) Afrikaans.
Commonly referenced Boer-named species:
Through standardization of scientific names to almost exclusively Greek and Latin roots, science has a common language, known across country and cultural borders. However, in the English language (and many others), the common names for many species are directly pulled from their land of origin.
Knowing the etymology of the common names can sometimes tell you just as much as the etymology of the scientific names - what an animal was known for, where it was from, who encountered it the most, and what it signified to them often are implied in the names we sometimes dismiss because they’re “unscientific”. Knowing the cultures that knew the species well, and understanding the history of the species in relation to humans, can be the difference between extinction and preservation at times, and can be quite interesting, aside from that.
Not included above: Blesbok (“blaze antelope”), bontebok (“mottled antelope”), dassie (“badger”), grysbok (“grey antelope”), korhaan (“black grouse”), leguaan (“iguana”), padloper (“pathwalker”), platanna (“flat-handed”), skaapsteker (“sheep pricker”).
I’ve always heard it pronounced “Aks-o-lotl”. Wikipedia says it’s /ˈæksəlɒtəl/; in the IPA (international phonetic alphabet). Basically the same as what I typed in the accent heard around my area, but what I typed could be pronounced very differently elsewhere, so the IPA guide is much more reliable. Just a bit confusing at first DX
ETA: I’ve heard of testicles being called “sweetbread”, not sweetmeats, but I don’t really frequent places that serve them…
Yeah, I’ve heard Rocky Mountain Oysters (fried cattle or sheep testicles, depending on where you are, for anyone who doesn’t know) called that before, and just boiled testicles (which are apparently awful).
But the primary usage is for the lingual glands and thymus, and its application to testicles is fairly recent.
Aye, you’re online. There are LOTS of dictionaries online. Here, this is a pretty good one: Dictionary.com
But…since I’m clearing out some other questions anyway, I may as well answer yours. Sweetbread is the thymus or pancreatic meat (or sometimes other glands, like the salivary glands under the tongue) of calves or lambs. The etymology of the term isn’t very well-understood, but it originated in England, in the 16th century. The “sweet” may have referred to the comparatively-sweet flavor of the meat, compared to other, more savory meats (such as muscles).
Sweetmeat is a more recent term that I think refers to hard candies, though it may refer to sweet candy in general. I just know it’s more recent, and has nothing to do with meat, or bread.