Illustration from the Vienna Disocourdes.
The Vienna Disocourdes are an early 6th-century manuscript, originally put together for the Byzantine princess Juliana Anicia by Pedanius Disocourdes. It also contains additional folios by Dionysius and a paraphrase of Nicander’s treatise on treating snake bites. It was found in Istanbul in the 1560s by a Flemish diplomat, and purchased by Emperor Ferdinand I shortly after its discovery. Since then, it’s been housed in Vienna, Austria.
The manuscript contains illustrations of many birds of the region, as well as representations of many medicinal herbs (383 of the 435 illustrations are of plants/herbs). The herbal illustrations were drawn so as to help a pharmacologist easily identify the plant and were annotated in Arabic rather than the more formal (but less widely-spoken) Greek.
Arabic words to the left of this plant appear to be “qinnab bustani” (قنب بستاني), or “garden hemp”. Garden hemp was not the fibrous hemp plant Cannabis satvia subsp. indica, which was already pretty much fully developed as a useful fiber plant separate from Cannabis satvia satvia. Contemporary Indus valley texts show multiple Cannabis plants of different heights with different names, and hemp plants definitively not used for medicinal Cannabis had been known and exploited since the 3rd century BCE.