Oral manifestations of childhood illnesses
1. Oral thrush - Caused by the Candida fungus overgrowing on the mucous membranes of the mouth. Also known as candidiasis when it occurs elsewhere on the body (such as vaginal candidiasis).
2. Varicella - Chicken pox. Have you ever had chicken pox in your mouth? It’s awful.
3. Stomatitis herpetica or Aphthosa [Herpetic stomatitis] - Caused by the same herpes infection of the mouth that causes cold sores, but blisters and mild ulceration can occur. This condition usually occurs when the child first contracts Herpes simplex I.
4. Stomatitis ulcerosa or Scorbutus - The oral manifestation of scurvy in children. The bone weakness, dry mouth, and immune dysfunction in scurvy often causes tooth weakening, loosening, and extreme gingivitis.
5. Follicular tonsillitis - The “standard” childhood tonsillitis, with infection of the palatine tonsils. If the infection doesn’t subside, removal of the tonsils is still the most common treatment.
6. Diphtheria - There are many oral manifestations of diphtheria, including “pseudo-membranes” covering the trachea, severely impairing breathing. The exotoxins exuded by Corynebacterium diphtherium can also cause thick, thrush-like patches in the pharyngotrachea.
Pediatrics: The Hygienic and and Medical Treatment of Children. Thomas Morgan Rotch, 1901.