can you help me to see difference between tyson glandulaes and papiloma? — Asked by Anonymous

Well, humans don’t have prominent (or, according to many researchers, present) Tyson glandulae, but aside from that, the differential diagnoses for HPV include:

Hirsutoid papillomas (pearly penile papules - sometimes mistaken for Tyson glandulae, and which affect up to 30% of males aged 20-40 years) are uniform, arranged in rows, and do not have any other HPV symptoms. They can last and recur over many years, while HPV infection is self-limiting to under two-years. They’re also harmless.

Syphilis causes open or ulcerative sores, swellings that go away and then present secondary symptoms, is non-uniform (like HPV), and has easy cures and testing available.

More on HPV and penile papules:

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hpv-infection/basics/definition/con-20030343

http://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/stdfact-hpv.htm

http://www.youngmenshealthsite.org/pearly_penile_papules.html

http://www.channel4embarrassingillnesses.com/conditions/pearly-penile-papules

fletchinder replied to your post: On the other hand… Booze is pretty dam…

Hey! Do you live in Wisconsin? Or does Ale Asylum actually export their stuff around the country? (They’re a Wisconsin brewery I think)

Grew up in Madison! Just a couple minutes away from Ale Asylum’s first brewery (where Karben4 brews these days). They set up when I was in high school, but I never really knew their products until my brother would bring them home over the summer when I was in college. Ale Asylum only exports as far south as Northern Illinois, and I don’t think they export to Iowa or Minnesota. It’s too bad.

On the other hand…

Booze is pretty damn enjoyable in moderation.

We’ve known that for eons.

This one’s for you, Little Raven.

[Top image]
[Bottom image from personal collection]

Accelerated aging and organ damage with chronic alcohol abuse
The chemical we call “alcohol" is actually ethanol - one of many chemicals that are alcohols (which is any compound with a hydroxyl functional group).
It’s also one of the most ancient intoxicants; the fermentation of beer predates the domestication of horses (~6000 years ago vs. 5500 years ago), though the first recorded recipe (and definitive proof of intentional brewing) was not until 3900 BCE, in ancient Sumeria.This illustration shows the accelerated aging, ulceration of the stomach, and cirrhosis of the liver in a man who has abused alcohol since he was a teenager. While the body has defenses against acute alcohol toxicity, such as vomiting the irritating alcohol from the stomach (as well as the negative mental associations we make with hangovers, of course), it does not have the same defenses against chronic excessive alcohol consumption. As one develops a tolerance for alcohol, and drinks more frequently, the brain becomes dependent upon it.
Alcohol is one of the few drugs that is absorbed directly through the stomach, for the most part. This can cause significant ulceration and scleroses (hardening) with chronic abuse. As the liver is where the alcohol and its by-products are processed, consistent abuse of the substance can cause significant organ damage. Die Frau als Hausärztin. Dr. Anna Fitcher-Duckelmann, 1911.

Accelerated aging and organ damage with chronic alcohol abuse

The chemical we call “alcohol" is actually ethanol - one of many chemicals that are alcohols (which is any compound with a hydroxyl functional group).

It’s also one of the most ancient intoxicants; the fermentation of beer predates the domestication of horses (~6000 years ago vs. 5500 years ago), though the first recorded recipe (and definitive proof of intentional brewing) was not until 3900 BCE, in ancient Sumeria.

This illustration shows the accelerated aging, ulceration of the stomach, and cirrhosis of the liver in a man who has abused alcohol since he was a teenager. While the body has defenses against acute alcohol toxicity, such as vomiting the irritating alcohol from the stomach (as well as the negative mental associations we make with hangovers, of course), it does not have the same defenses against chronic excessive alcohol consumption. As one develops a tolerance for alcohol, and drinks more frequently, the brain becomes dependent upon it.

Alcohol is one of the few drugs that is absorbed directly through the stomach, for the most part. This can cause significant ulceration and scleroses (hardening) with chronic abuse. As the liver is where the alcohol and its by-products are processed, consistent abuse of the substance can cause significant organ damage.

Die Frau als Hausärztin
. Dr. Anna Fitcher-Duckelmann, 1911.

wapiti3:

The Zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Samarang, under the command of Captain Sir Edward Belcher, C.B., F.R.A.S., F.G.S., during the years 1843-1846 on Flickr.

BY Adams, Arthur, 1820-1878 
Gray, John Edward, 1800-1875 
Hawkins, B. Waterhouse (Benjamin Waterhouse), 1807-1889 , ill.
Marryat, F., , ill.
Reeve, Lovell, 1814-1865 
Richardson, John, Sir, 1787-1865 
Sowerby, G. B. (George Brettingham), 1812-1884 , ill.
White, Adam, 1817-1879 
Wing, W., , lithographer.
Great Britain. Admiralty.
Linnean Society of London.
Pub.-London :Reeve and Benham,1850 [i.e. 1848-1850]
BHL Collections:
Smithsonian Libraries

biomedicalephemera:

Acne Keloid
Keloid formed over bacterial acne, which likely would have cleared up on its own.
Keloidal scarring is sometimes idiopathic (with no known cause), but most of the time it’s due to contamination of the wound during the healing process. If an infection doesn’t develop, but the contamination is still present (like, say, if you worked in a coal mine, had dust over a particularly bad pimple, and rubbed it into the comedo accidentally), the body produces an excess of hypertrophied scar tissue, and creates a keloid. Unlike the acne pustules, keloids will not go away without surgical removal.
An Introduction to Dermatology. Norman Walker, 1911.

biomedicalephemera:

Acne Keloid

Keloid formed over bacterial acne, which likely would have cleared up on its own.

Keloidal scarring is sometimes idiopathic (with no known cause), but most of the time it’s due to contamination of the wound during the healing process. If an infection doesn’t develop, but the contamination is still present (like, say, if you worked in a coal mine, had dust over a particularly bad pimple, and rubbed it into the comedo accidentally), the body produces an excess of hypertrophied scar tissue, and creates a keloid. Unlike the acne pustules, keloids will not go away without surgical removal.

An Introduction to Dermatology. Norman Walker, 1911.

I am only 13 but I have many pimples andI am afraid that after puberty nothing will change.. do you think there's still hope for me? (I am a girl) — Asked by Anonymous

Guess what? Between the ages of 11 and 30 (between 9 and 28 in females), 85% of people develop acne to the point where it causes stress in their lives. That’s not even counting people who develop it but somehow manage to not care.

It’s more common in women than in men, though the mechanism as for why is not really agreed upon (since it appears that, in animal models at least, testosterone supplementation causes more significant dermatological problems than estrogen and progesterone). My husband still has scars from it on his face, and still gets it on his back. Hell, I still get it when I’m stressed out.

image


[I don’t know how well it shows up, but this is from just a year and a half ago and i had little zits all over my cheeks and big ones on my chin here, after about a year of nothing whatsoever]

Try to use drugstore products as recommended - I’ve seen a lot of relatives and friends use them once and expect results, but that’s just not how skin works. If that doesn’t help at least to some degree after a fortnight, see a dermatologist. They really do help!

If nothing else, don’t pick at your skin, and don’t pop zits - chances are that you will probably not have to deal with it by the age of 17 or 18 if you are female and not on testosterone supplementation.

and hey! be glad you’re not living in the 1800s…acne scars used to frequently be a sign of lower-class living (as many vocational diseases caused dermatological diseases which had acneform presentation) or venereal disease. These days, it just means you’re a teenager.

But, uh, good luck with that whole “being a teenager” thing. Cause it isn’t exactly the most pleasant part of life to exist within. Trust me. I’ve been there recently.

More on acne:

http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Acne/acne_ff.asp

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/10/071019155627.htm

http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/welcome/features/20090909_teen_acne/

Our Three (Brain) Mothers

Protecting our brain and central nervous system are the meninges, derived from the Greek term for “membrane”. You may have heard of meningitis - this is when the innermost layer of the meninges swells, often due to infection, and can cause nerve or brain damage, and sometimes death.

There are three meningeal layers: the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater. In Latin, “mater” means “mother”. The term comes from the enveloping nature of these membranes, but we later learned how apt it was, because of how protective and essential the meningeal layers are.

——————————————————-

  • The dura mater is the outermost and toughest membrane. Its name means “tough mother”.

The dura is most important for keeping cerebrospinal fluid where it belongs, and for allowing the safe transport of blood to and from the brain. This layer is also water-tight - if it weren’t, our cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) would leak out, and our central nervous system would have no cushion! Its leathery qualities mean that even when the skull is broken, more often than not, the dura (and the brain it encases) is not punctured.

  • The arachnoid mater is the middle membrane. Its name means "spider-like mother", because of its web-like nature.

The arachnoid is attached directly to the deep side of the dura, and has small protrusions into the sinuses within the dura, which allows for CSF to return to the bloodstream and not become stagnant. It also has very fine, web-like projections downward, which attach to the pia mater. However, it doesn’t contact the pia mater in the same way as the dura: the CSF flows between the two meningeal layers, in the subarachnoid space. The major superficial blood vessels are on top of the arachnoid, and below the dura.

  • Pia mater is the innermost membrane, which follows the folds (sulci) of the brain and spinal cord most closely. Its name means “tender mother”.

The pia is what makes sure the CSF stays between the meninges, and doesn’t just get absorbed into the brain or spinal cord. It also allows for new CSF from the ventricles to be shunted into the subarachnoid space, and provides pathways for blood vessels to nourish the brain. While the pia mater is very thin, it is water-tight, just like the dura mater. The pia is also the primary blood-brain barrier, making sure that no plasma proteins or organic molecules penetrate into the CSF. 

Because of this barrier, medications which need to reach the brain or meninges must be administered directly into the CSF.

Images:
Anatomy: Practical and Surgical. Henry Gray, 1909.

Hoatzin chick climbing back up to its nestAs a feather develops it requires a flow of blood. The shaft or calamus is a direct link to the blood supply and the feather grows out something like a flower. Once the feather is fully developed the blood source dries up and is closed. The shaft then hardens and the feather becomes functional. 
The calamus is still visible in the primary feathers of this hoatzin. 
Tropical Wild Life in British Guinea. William Beebe, 1917.

Hoatzin chick climbing back up to its nest
As a feather develops it requires a flow of blood. The shaft or calamus is a direct link to the blood supply and the feather grows out something like a flower. Once the feather is fully developed the blood source dries up and is closed. The shaft then hardens and the feather becomes functional.

The calamus is still visible in the primary feathers of this hoatzin.

Tropical Wild Life in British Guinea. William Beebe, 1917.

Hello there ! Recently, I saw a video about heart transplant and you might have seen it too. And I've always wondered : How do they manage to get pass the ribs ? Do they cut/break it ? Sorry if my question is dumb, answer may be obvious but... I'm kinda lost.. (Sorry if my English's not correct... Not my primary language. Greetings from France though :) ) — Asked by liunare

This is a costotome! It has two lever-action jaws: one jaw grasps the rib, while the other cuts it!

image

This is used to cut the cartilage between the ribs and sternum.  This is often used in lung surgery.

For open-heart surgery, a sternal saw is more often used.

The sternum (breastbone) is split using this saw in order to access the full thoracic cavity, after which the lungs and ribs are retracted, and the surgery is performed. The sternum is then re-joined.

For anyone who hasn’t seen a heart transplant (which also usually splits the sternum), it’s viewable at this link.

Obviously, not for the squeamish.

digitalpubliclibraryofamerica:

Everyone loves scientific illustration! These beauties, from T. Wingate Todd, were published in Human physiology, especially adapted for dental students, by R. G. Pearce, from 1916. The volume is from Columbia University Libraries and is part of the Biodiversity Heritage Library.

"Hey, has anyone seen my Snapple I left it here OH MY GOD IT’S F—-ING SMALLPOX"

We found some forgotten variola (smallpox) at the FDA laboratories in Bethesda, Maryland! They were fully sealed and there’s no evidence of tampering, and are now located at the secure BSL-4 CDC laboratory in Atlanta, Georgia, where the rest of the US stockpile is located.

The last naturally-occurring Variola major case was in a Bangladeshi girl in 1975, and the last Variola minor case was in a hospital cook in Somalia, in 1977. Eradication was complete by early 1978, and was formally declared in 1980.

In late 1978, a medical photographer became infected by a smallpox sample kept at the University of Birmingham, and subsequently died from the disease. One other person also became infected, but survived. The researcher who was overseeing the photography operation was distraught and committed suicide soon after the photographer’s death. After this, the WHO strongly encouraged all countries to destroy their stockpiles of smallpox.

There was significant resistance to the recommendation and pressure by both Russia and the United States, and today there are two formally declared laboratories that have the live virus - the CDC in Atlanta, Georgia, and VECTOR in Koltsovo, Russia.

Having worked in several labs, there’s this fear of throwing things out that people might one day come back and need, or want to use again. Even samples that we can hardly identify, waaaaay back in the -80C freezers, get kept around unless we know what they are and who was using them and that they wish to destroy the sample or declare it unsuitable for future research. Stuff gets shoved to the back, and you don’t look at it for years or sometimes decades. There are some truly bizarre things to be found when cleaning old freezers…but hopefully I never come across something like this.

There are probably more smallpox samples out there, in former Soviet states, and in the US. Hopefully they’re all as well-sealed and safe as this one was.

Via The Mary Sue/@pourmecoffee

biomedicalephemera:

Dermatographia [dermatographic uticaria].
About 4-5% of the population have what’s commonly known as “skin writing”. The root causes aren’t fully known (though it’s suspected to have multiple causes, including nutritional problems and stress reactions), but it occurs when the skin has an allergic-type reaction to any form of scratching or rubbing of the skin, even though it’s not reacting to any antigens. The affected area is generally itchy or somewhat burning, but not very painful. The condition also does not cause a generalized allergic reaction, except for in about 50% of first outbreaks (reasons for that are unknown). 
Swelling and redness generally disappear within 15-30 minutes, but sometimes last for hours.
A Practical Treatise on Diseases of the Skin. James Nevins Hyde, 1909.

biomedicalephemera:

Dermatographia [dermatographic uticaria].

About 4-5% of the population have what’s commonly known as “skin writing”. The root causes aren’t fully known (though it’s suspected to have multiple causes, including nutritional problems and stress reactions), but it occurs when the skin has an allergic-type reaction to any form of scratching or rubbing of the skin, even though it’s not reacting to any antigens. The affected area is generally itchy or somewhat burning, but not very painful. The condition also does not cause a generalized allergic reaction, except for in about 50% of first outbreaks (reasons for that are unknown). 

Swelling and redness generally disappear within 15-30 minutes, but sometimes last for hours.

A Practical Treatise on Diseases of the Skin. James Nevins Hyde, 1909.

Do you know anything about decreasing the effects/symptoms of dermatographia except taking antihistamines? — Asked by Anonymous

Unfortunately, as it’s considered an allergic reaction of the skin (even though it’s triggered by serrated touch, friction, or emotional trauma rather than chemical or internal stimuli), antihistamines are generally the only treatment for people with this condition. Its exact mechanism is still unknown.

People with a chronic or acute deficiency of vitamin E or K often develop this condition, but as this is a minority of cases and vitaminosis is a serious and harmful condition (even in water-soluble vitamins), it’s inadvisable to self-treat, rather than seeing a dermatologist.

image

Check out artist Ariana Page Russell from Hungary if you have more questions (both medical and social!) about the condition! She founded the site Skin Tome specifically for patients and friends of patients dealing with dermatographia. Even if it doesn’t usually leave lasting scars, it can be stressful and mentally taxing, especially during adolescence, when it’s usually at its worst (and often combined with acne and/or stretch marks, to boot!).

Edit: Corticosteroids and some topical treatments also help, especially for people whose condition flairs up, but of course a dermatologist is the person you’d want to ask about this stuff. :)

Ants just want a hug…with their mandibles.
Nikon Small World Competition 2011.

Ants just want a hug…with their mandibles.

Nikon Small World Competition 2011.