No, really, Konrad Gesner’s Monkey suuuper wants to know about that HILARIOUS thing your BFF did at the club last night, before she woke up in the park, under a bench!

No, really, Konrad Gesner’s Monkey suuuper wants to know about that HILARIOUS thing your BFF did at the club last night, before she woke up in the park, under a bench!

Kabaru the Abyssinian wolf is so over your nonsense.

Kabaru the Abyssinian wolf is so over your nonsense.

The entire Enyalius genus throws shade at that poor decision you made back in May.

The entire Enyalius genus throws shade at that poor decision you made back in May.

This is a hinny. It is the combination of a male horse (stallion) and a female donkey (jenny or jennet). Like its counterpart, the mule (horse mare/donkey male), hinnies are infertile.
That is why this one has a vendetta against you and your personal choices in fashion.

This is a hinny. It is the combination of a male horse (stallion) and a female donkey (jenny or jennet). Like its counterpart, the mule (horse mare/donkey male), hinnies are infertile.

That is why this one has a vendetta against you and your personal choices in fashion.

This is a trumpetfish, and it cant believe what you just did.

This is a trumpetfish, and it cant believe what you just did.

Yo I was just diagnosed with PFAPA, do you know anything about it? — Asked by Anonymous

Yikes, have fun with that? At least it’s not contagious, unlike most forms of aphthous stomatis (like cold sores).

I assume to be diagnosed with this condition, you’ve already been tested for Epstein-Barr and cytomegalovirus, but as you’ve seen, it can mimic those two viruses (which many people know from having mono) combined with cold sores (painful little mouth ulcers that hurt much more than their size would suggest they should).

PFAPA, to those who don’t know, is Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis and Adenopathy, and generally presents as, well, exactly what its name implies - periodic fever, “cold sores”, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes (most often in the throat, just like in mono). It usually lasts a few days at a time, several (3+) times a year.

Generally, it seems to be an autoimmune reaction to a previous infection, and what it isn’t, and how it responds to symptomatic treatment tend to be the defining factors for diagnosis. Once the viruses and genetic or autoimmune conditions that cause similar symptoms are excluded, the patient is generally given a prednisone injection when the fever flares again - if the fever decreases immediately, the patient is diagnosed with PFAPA.

While most patients are diagnosed between 3 weeks and 7 years of age, and the condition almost always resolves on its own by 10 years old, teens and adults are occasionally diagnosed. Teenagers often overcome the condition on their own, though it may take up to two decades. Adults sometimes never overcome it, though their ability to self-treat with prednisone injections and anti-inflammatory medications can minimize the impact to their professional and personal lives.

more on PFAPA:

Periodic Fevers at Cleavland Clinic

PFAPA: What is it? What isn’t it?

Merck Manuals: PFAPA

why do house centipedes in contact with humans live longer? — Asked by Anonymous

Ooh, that was poorly worded of me - I meant that while there are some VERY long-living arthropods out in the wild (especially insect queens, which can sometimes live decades), humans don’t regularly come into contact with any bugs that live longer than house centipedes.

The most commonly encountered house bugs in temperate climates are fruit flies (which live a few days to several weeks), other flies (several weeks to a couple months), ants (several weeks), and house spiders (most live up to a year).

So with its lifespan being 3+ years, house centipedes often out-stay renters in apartments, if they’re not killed off.

Meet my new friend! I have named it Rory.
I believe this is at least the second generation of house centipede (Scutigera coleoptera) to live near my computer. It lives behind my whiteboard calendar. The first generation (to me) lived in the windowsill, though I have reason to believe it has since died and been replaced by its progeny. Rory was a tiny scamp just a year ago, but has since grown to a lovely 1.75 inch (~4.5 cm) body length (excluding legs/antennae).
Centipedes are difficult to gender without dissection, but Rory is a good centipede name, I think. I already have one named Legs. I am astounded that Rory made it to adulthood since my cat has taken to hunting wall-bugs.
House centipedes have a very long lifespan for arthropods, especially those in regular contact with humans, often living for 3-7 years. Rory will probably be here long after I have moved on.
Also, they have purpley-blue blood! This is due to having their bodies transport oxygen via the non-iron-containing hemolymph, rather than iron-containing hemoglobin, which is red, and what almost all vertebrates have.
I do not like their creepy legs or their crazy proportions or their speed, but house centipedes are harmless - they mostly come about as a result of you having spiders or ants about, which they feast on, and which are much more likely to try and bite you…unless you swat a house centipede or hurt it for no reason, they almost never bite humans - and when they do, their venom is nothing compared to their jungle relatives.
[More on House Centipedes]

Meet my new friend! I have named it Rory.

I believe this is at least the second generation of house centipede (Scutigera coleoptera) to live near my computer. It lives behind my whiteboard calendar. The first generation (to me) lived in the windowsill, though I have reason to believe it has since died and been replaced by its progeny. Rory was a tiny scamp just a year ago, but has since grown to a lovely 1.75 inch (~4.5 cm) body length (excluding legs/antennae).

Centipedes are difficult to gender without dissection, but Rory is a good centipede name, I think. I already have one named Legs. I am astounded that Rory made it to adulthood since my cat has taken to hunting wall-bugs.

House centipedes have a very long lifespan for arthropods, especially those in regular contact with humans, often living for 3-7 years. Rory will probably be here long after I have moved on.

Also, they have purpley-blue blood! This is due to having their bodies transport oxygen via the non-iron-containing hemolymph, rather than iron-containing hemoglobin, which is red, and what almost all vertebrates have.

I do not like their creepy legs or their crazy proportions or their speed, but house centipedes are harmless - they mostly come about as a result of you having spiders or ants about, which they feast on, and which are much more likely to try and bite you…unless you swat a house centipede or hurt it for no reason, they almost never bite humans - and when they do, their venom is nothing compared to their jungle relatives.

[More on House Centipedes]

Cerebellum and ocular system in the human
In vertebrates, the eyeballs are direct extensions of the brain; that is, they evolved after the brain, and are literally unimpeded access to the cerebellum and cerebrum. Because of this, many ocular tumors or injuries can be far more dangerous to the brain than growths or injuries on any other part of the skull.
 Anatome ex omnium veterum recentiorumque observationibus. Thomas Bartholin, 1673.

Cerebellum and ocular system in the human

In vertebrates, the eyeballs are direct extensions of the brain; that is, they evolved after the brain, and are literally unimpeded access to the cerebellum and cerebrum. Because of this, many ocular tumors or injuries can be far more dangerous to the brain than growths or injuries on any other part of the skull.

Anatome ex omnium veterum recentiorumque observationibus. Thomas Bartholin, 1673.

biomedicalephemera:

German messenger dog in gas mask
In addition to humans, all of the animals used in WWI, including horses, pigeons, dogs, and mules, had to be outfitted with at least some degree of protection from the gas attacks going on all around them.
All animals suffered from inhalation injuries from the lung irritants, but the threat to the eyes and skin of war animals was less than in humans. Horse and mule eyes were noted to show remarkable healing power, even after vesicant (i.e. mustard gas - blister gases) contamination.
Image from US Army Chemical Corps Museum, taken by unknown Entente powers soldier in France.

biomedicalephemera:

German messenger dog in gas mask

In addition to humans, all of the animals used in WWI, including horses, pigeons, dogs, and mules, had to be outfitted with at least some degree of protection from the gas attacks going on all around them.

All animals suffered from inhalation injuries from the lung irritants, but the threat to the eyes and skin of war animals was less than in humans. Horse and mule eyes were noted to show remarkable healing power, even after vesicant (i.e. mustard gas - blister gases) contamination.

Image from US Army Chemical Corps Museum, taken by unknown Entente powers soldier in France.

biomedicalephemera:

The human brain, its nervous projections, layers, and cortical blood vessels

Though we’re probably subconsciously aware of our brains on a day-to-day basis, most of us generally don’t pay much direct attention to them. Of course, lots can go wrong in the mind, resulting in mental illness, physical illness, and in the worst cases, death.

But aside from everything that can go wrong in the brain, did you know that the mind, despite being only 2% of the average body mass, uses almost 25% of the oxygen we consume, and over 70% of the glucose we ingest? It’s a tiny organ, but it manages almost everything outside of the parasympathetic nervous system, and it requires a relatively high energy input (especially compared to other organs in the body) just to function on a daily basis.

The cells in the brain require, on average, twice as much pure energy as other cells, just to function, and when you’re focusing hard on a big paper, or trying to brainstorm and be creative, your mind is in overdrive! Even if you haven’t moved in two hours, if you’re focusing hard on an essay and coming up with lots of great ideas, your lunch isn’t going to last long, with what your brain is demanding.

Since it’s not a muscle, and you’re not necessarily doing anything physical when you think, it can be hard to believe that the brain needs so much energy.

However, the cerebellum, and especially the frontal and prefrontal cortices (where our personality and “creative minds” exist, for the most part) demand more energy than our stomachs, livers, spleens, and kidneys combined! Depending on how your brain is wired, that fact can make it extremely exhausting to deal with other people, as you’re engaging your prefrontal cortex to a high degree. Thinking hard and being creative can sap your energy, too - that’s why I always had an apple or banana to eat midway through my morning courses!

Tabulae Anatomicae. Bartholomeo Eustachi, 1570 (Published 1783).

The Anatomy of the Brain, Explained in a Series of Engravings. Charles Bell, 1803.

daft-punks replied to your post: I do not make money on this blog. The …

this looks like a spam message

The person responded to my email personally so while I don’t doubt it was spam, it was spam sent out by someone.

Besides, I haven’t mentioned creative commons stuff since 4.0 was codified. I have slightly different views now than I did last time I brought it up, and this reminded me of that.

Impression of scintillating scotoma occurring in an artist
Scintillating scotoma is the most common visual aura preceding migraine. This depiction is showing the distorted field alone; it does not depict the normal parts of the field of vision.
A scotoma is any area of alteration in the field of vision. Some are due to defects in the eye or the optic nerves, but scintillating scotomas are not. They are caused by migraines (or many other possible causes) interfering with the processing abilities of the occipital cortex. The scintillating scotoma flickers and blurs vision, but is never dark. It can hinder ability to read and drive, among other things.
Clinical Lectures on Diseases of the Eye. J. Elliot Colburn, 1902.

Impression of scintillating scotoma occurring in an artist

Scintillating scotoma is the most common visual aura preceding migraine. This depiction is showing the distorted field alone; it does not depict the normal parts of the field of vision.

A scotoma is any area of alteration in the field of vision. Some are due to defects in the eye or the optic nerves, but scintillating scotomas are not. They are caused by migraines (or many other possible causes) interfering with the processing abilities of the occipital cortex. The scintillating scotoma flickers and blurs vision, but is never dark. It can hinder ability to read and drive, among other things.

Clinical Lectures on Diseases of the Eye. J. Elliot Colburn, 1902.

I do not make money on this blog. The very little I make on donations generally goes to the few physical resources I have for this blog (or whatever else I have elsewise disclosed - such as the Madison theater fund in my brother’s name or my cat’s surgery), or towards replacing my external hard-drives to keep my digital resources.
My blog is CC BY-NC 4.0. 
Previously, I had it listed as CC BY 3.0, but since the advent of Creative Commons 4.0, I am now CC BY-NC. This means that you can copy, redistribute, remix, or share the content in any format, but credit must be given, and commercial use is restricted. 
Increasingly, I’ve been spending much, much more time with the writing and research than I have been spending on the graphical resources. The graphics are still okay to use in any context, you’re just kinda scummy if you imply that you made it yourself. But please do not repeat the posts wholesale as your own, or use the posts for commercial use.

I do not make money on this blog. The very little I make on donations generally goes to the few physical resources I have for this blog (or whatever else I have elsewise disclosed - such as the Madison theater fund in my brother’s name or my cat’s surgery), or towards replacing my external hard-drives to keep my digital resources.

My blog is CC BY-NC 4.0.

Previously, I had it listed as CC BY 3.0, but since the advent of Creative Commons 4.0, I am now CC BY-NC. This means that you can copy, redistribute, remix, or share the content in any format, but credit must be given, and commercial use is restricted. 

Increasingly, I’ve been spending much, much more time with the writing and research than I have been spending on the graphical resources. The graphics are still okay to use in any context, you’re just kinda scummy if you imply that you made it yourself. But please do not repeat the posts wholesale as your own, or use the posts for commercial use.

can you help me to see difference between tyson glandulaes and papiloma? — Asked by Anonymous

Well, humans don’t have prominent (or, according to many researchers, present) Tyson glandulae, but aside from that, the differential diagnoses for HPV include:

Hirsutoid papillomas (pearly penile papules - sometimes mistaken for Tyson glandulae, and which affect up to 30% of males aged 20-40 years) are uniform, arranged in rows, and do not have any other HPV symptoms. They can last and recur over many years, while HPV infection is self-limiting to under two-years. They’re also harmless.

Syphilis causes open or ulcerative sores, swellings that go away and then present secondary symptoms, is non-uniform (like HPV), and has easy cures and testing available.

More on HPV and penile papules:

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hpv-infection/basics/definition/con-20030343

http://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/stdfact-hpv.htm

http://www.youngmenshealthsite.org/pearly_penile_papules.html

http://www.channel4embarrassingillnesses.com/conditions/pearly-penile-papules